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  • Alix of Hesse and by Rhine later Alexandra Feodorovna Romanova (after marrying Nicholas II) was born on June 6th, 1872 and died on July 17th, 1918
  • Granddaughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom
  • Carrier of hemophilia, which she passed on to her son. Hemophilia is a genetic disorder that is carried by females but only affects male carriers. It impairs the body's ability to clot blood or coagulate, resulting in massive blood loss for even the most minor of injuries.
  • Alix met and fell in love with Alix however, had already met and fallen in love with the Tsarevich of Russia, whose mother was the sister-in-law of Alix's uncle, the Prince of Wales and whose uncle Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich was married to Alix's sister Elizabeth. They were also second cousins as they were both great-grandchildren of Princess Wilhelmina of Baden (thus had an incestuous relationship).
  • Their marriage was said to be "I a Victorian marriage, outwardly serene and proper, but based on intensely passionate physical love."
  • The new tsarina of Imperial Russia was heartily disliked among the country. As the tsarina, Alexandra seemed very cold and curt with the subjects, although according to her and many other close friends, she was only terribly shy and nervous in front of the Russian people. Her feelings were bruised and battered from the Russians 'hateful' nature. She was also frowned upon by the wealthy and poor alike by her distaste in Russia, whether it was the food or the manner of dancing. Her inability to produce a son also incensed the people; however, she was very fond of her four daughters. After the birth of the Grand Duchess Olga, Nicholas was reported to have said, "We are grateful she was a daughter; if she was a boy she would have belonged to the people, being a girl she belongs to us." When her 'Sunbeam' Alexei the Tsarevitch was born, she further isolated herself from the Russian court by spending nearly all of her time with him, and his hemophiliac disorder did little to distance their close relationship.
  • Alexandra lived mainly as a recluse during her rule as the Tsar's wife. She also was reported to have had a terrible relationship with her mother-in-law, Marie Feodorovna.
  • Alexandra was very supportive of her husband Nicholas, yet she often gave him bad advice. She was a fervent advocate of the divine right, and believed that it was unnecessary to attempt to secure the approval of the people.
  • During World War I, with the national citizens aroused, all the complaints Russians had about the Empress– for instance, her German birth, her poor ideals, her devotion to Rasputin, all circled and twisted around the deadly fates and designs that claimed the entire family and all of their potential descendants.
  • Having to live with the knowledge that she had given him the bleeding disease, Alexandra was obsessed with protecting her son; she kept a close eye on him at all times and consulted a number of mystics who claimed to be able to heal him during his nearly fatal attacks. Alexandra spoiled her only son and let him have his way. In 1912, Alexandra finally revealed the truth about Alexei's illness, in confidence, to her mother-in-law and Nicholas' sisters, but the knowledge soon reached a limited circle of courtiers and relatives. The revelation backfired on Alexandra, since she was now blamed for Alexei's frail health and, because it had first appeared among Queen Victoria's children, his condition was known to some as "the English disease," adding to the element of foreignness that clung to Alexandra. Increasingly, she became an unpopular figure with the imperial family, the aristocracy and the Russian people. During Great War, her German birth further inflamed this hatred and made her the immediate and primary focus for almost any aspect of opposition to the monarchy.
  • She befriended a mystic, Vladamir Rasputin, in hopes of curing her son of hemophilia. From the start there were persistent murmurs and snickers behind Rasputin's back. Although some of St.Petersburg's top clergy accepted Rasputin as a living prophet, others angrily denounced him as a fraud and a heretic. Alexandra began to rely on Rasputin increasingly after he helped her son during a bad episode. This reliance enhanced Rasputin's political power, which was seriously to undermine Romanov rule during the First World War. Rasputin's perceived interference in political matters eventually led to his murder in December 1916.
  • During WWI, Nicholas II relocated to the front, leaving the Tsaritsa in charge of the government, helped undermine the Romanov dynasty. The poor performance of the military led to rumors believed by the people that the German-born Tsaritsa was part of a conspiracy to help Germany win the war.
  • Forced to live in seclusion with her family in the governor's mansion after the February revolution and after Nicholas II was removed from power. They were given little rations of food and constantly supervised, and were forced to turn over their possessions, including jewelry. Alexandra kept only two bracelets which her uncle, Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, had given her as a child and which she could not take off. He did not know that the former Tsarina and her daughters wore concealed on their person diamonds, emeralds, rubies and ropes of pearls. These would be discovered only after the family was executed.
  • Named a saint in 1981 by the Russian Orthodox Church.
  • "Love letters"